Adenine: Adenosine is a part of a very crucial process of the body, the process of energy generation. Use of Adenosine, a nucleoside, is a recent innovation in the cosmetics advancements. It restores the skin by reenergizing the cells of the skin. It provides an anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effect on the skin.
Alanine: It is used in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products as a skin conditioning agent, anti-static agent and masking ingredient, and as an amino acid, may combine with the epidermal cells to fill up creases, and thus provide the surface of your skin with a smoother appearance.
Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) Leaf Extract: Aloe vera leaf extract helps stimulate the production of collagen in the skin, which reduces the appearance of scarring. It soothes sunburns. Aloe vera gel is known for its cooling, soothing properties, and it feels amazing on your skin when you're suffering from a sunburn
Aminomethyl Propanol: Is a synthetic ingredient used in cosmetics as a pH adjuster. It is considered safe as currently used in amounts of 2% or less in cosmetic formulas. Aminomethyl propanol can penetrate skin's uppermost layers, but does not go further, meaning it does not get into the body.
Arginine: Arginine is an amino acid that is used in cosmetics and personal care products to protect the skin from free radicals, increase skin hydration, and boost collagen production.
Asparagine: Asparagine is a dispensable amino acid. It is synthesized in our body from amino acid Aspartic acid and ammonia, in the presence of asparagine synthetase. It is important in the synthesis of glycoprotein and other proteins. It also helps in excretion of ammonia from the body. Asparagine along with other essential and non-essential amino acid, is required for collagen formation. Although it can be made by the body itself, upon aging the biosynthesis declines. Feeding skin or body without side source of the amino acid is favorable to the body. Amino acids are mainly used as conditioners for hair and skin.
Aspartic Acid: Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid. It is available in racemic form, or in other words, due to the orientation of different atoms, there are three varieties of Aspartic acid: L-aspartic acid, R-aspartic acid, and d-β-aspartic acid. L-aspartic acid is the most active form of aspartic acid. According to one study as we get exposed to harmful UV rays, L-aspartic acid gets converted into its lesser active form- R-aspartic acid and d-β-aspartic acid. Now when they get incorporated into collagen-elastin synthesis, they create skin that is not healthy. So, it is important to either apply or ingest whichever way desired to get an extra dose of Aspartic acid. It is useful as skin and hair conditioner, due to its unique structure, it can hold moisture along. Also, as told earlier, it is important in maintaining healthy looking skin.
Astaxanthin: Astaxanthin has carotenoid, which is a derivative of Vitamin A. It has various positive effects on the skin. It helps retain skin moisture, maintains elasticity of skin and leads towards healthy & plump skin. It is a powerful antioxidant, it protects against the harmful UV rays as well as it neutralizes free radicals, helps restore skin’s natural antioxidant balance. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory and reduces redness, itching, and puffiness.
Benzyl Alcohol: Benzyl alcohol is aromatic alcohol found in many teas and fruits. It is found in cocoa beans, cranberries, mushrooms, apricot, snap beans. Also, jasmine, ylang-ylang, hyacinth plant has it in their essential oil. It is used as a preservative in many preparations. It is also used as a solvent, because of -OH group it can attract many ions and thus a better solvent. Also, it is used as a fragrance ingredient because it aromatic as well as evaporates faster. It is also used as a vehicle to decrease the viscosity of any cosmetic formulation.
Beta Glucan (Yeast): Beta-glucan belongs to a class called biological response modifiers. It acts through slightly altering the basic mechanism of skin cell formation, to stimulate more skin cell formation. It can be isolated from oats, mushrooms, barley and also cell membrane of baker’s yeast. It stimulates collagen formation, which is a very first building block of skin rejuvenation. As we age the rate at which new skin cells are formed decreases. But the regular application of ingredients like this can bring noticeable change. It also can act as a photoprotective agent. It moisturizes, soothes skin. It accelerates wound healing so that it can be found in products like numerous personal care products and anti-aging regimen.
Beta Glycan (Oat): Beta glucans are polysaccharide sugars found in cell walls that are derived from various mushrooms, plants, algaes, yeasts or oats. ... In skin care, beta glucans work twofold to soothe and calm irritated skin and as an effective anti-ager to firm and plump fine lines and wrinkles
Beta-Carotene: Beta-carotene is a raw material or a starter for Vitamin A. It is a carotenoid, found in almost all fruits and veggies those are orange-yellow: few carrots, mangoes, oranges, etc. Beta-carotene can be synthetically manufactured as well. It also has Vitamin A like qualities in case of skin care. It is antioxidant, so it helps skin to get rid of the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. It also moisturizes dry and flaky skin. It rejuvenates skin by moisturizing.
Betulinic Acid: Derived from birch tree bark, it is used as a naturally antioxidant as it protvetcs from free radicals and carcinogens (ionizing radiation, UV). It also strongly stimulates the synthesus of collagen and elastin in the skin.
Biotin: Biotin, also known as vitamin H and vitamin b factor. It is a whitish crystalline powder. It is present in higher concentration in yeast and milk. It is also a very important coenzyme for many carboxylation -decarboxylation reactions. Due to its vital importance in the body, it is often taken orally. It is believed that biotin, when taken orally, is the cure for brittle nails. Apart from that biotin is used as a moisturizing agent. Its conditions hair and skin by altering the rate at which certain reactions occur and leave skin and hair revitalized and rejuvenated. It is also used for getting rid of dandruff from hair.
Boswellia Serrata Extract: When topically applied, antioxidant quality of its essential oil helps skin recover faster, and it fades blemishes, and It helps make skin tone even. It is an excellent astringent and toner. Thus, it helps remove dead skin cells. The boswellic acids, both alpha and beta varieties block 5-lipooxygenase enzyme and thus help reduce inflammation. It helps reduces redness or itching of the skin. Its fragrance makes it more appealing for use as a cosmetic. Both the Boswellia carterii and Boswellia serrata are more or less similar except for the origin as later is native to India.
Butylene Glycol: It is mainly used as a solvent in many preparations keeping ingredients such as pigments or dyes from clumping together. The hydroxyl group makes the Butendiol favoring more water. In case of the skin surface, it attracts more water making it ideal as humectants. It has the ability to add moisture to formulations for example hair conditioner or shampoos. It can control viscosity. Especially gels or creams get greater spread-ability when butendiol is added in a product. It also stabilizes the preparation improves the texture of the skin or when applied on the hair it can smooth the cuticles down giving it softer smother texture. It can also be found in acne creams as an active ingredient; however, it has been found that butylene glycol can clogs pores making acne worst, can even be irritating on the skin for some.
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter: Shea butter is used in numerous skin conditions, like dry skin, acne, rash, itchy skin, stretch marks, skin breakage. Shea butter also heals and protects skin from sunburn because of its content in UV absorbing triterpenes which are made of phytosterols, vitamin E and cinnamic acid. It has the highest amount of unsaponifiable fats or plant sterols, which are closer to cholesterol in structure, and when applied to the skin, they do not let moisture evaporate and makes it available for skin surface. Vitamins act as an antioxidant, which improves the damage caused by oxidative stress. It’s a really very valuable ingredient in skin care, and anti-aging regimen surely counts on it.
Caffeine: Mainly it is used as an antioxidant. It fights against the free radicals generated through different kind of exposures to the environment. It is also an anti-cellulite because it prevents the accumulation of excessive fat in the cell. It inhibits phosphodiesterase activity. In doing so, it stimulates the degradation of fats during the process of lipolysis. Caffeine inhibits the 5-a-reductase activity, which in turn helps in increasing microcirculation of blood in the skin and also stimulates the growth of hair. It also has protective action against UV radiation and decreases damaging photoaging of the skin.
Calcium Chloride: Calcium Chloride is an inorganic salt. In cosmetics and personal care products, it is used in a variety of products including bath oils, make-up products and eye shadows. Calcium Chloride is used in cosmetic and personal care products as a viscosity increasing agent and as a cosmetic astringent.
Calcium Pantothenate: Calcium pantothenate is a Calcium salt of pantothenic acid or vitamin B5.
Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea): Leaf extract of Camellia Sinensis used in various cosmetics products because of its multiple uses. First of all, it is an antioxidant, in other words, it is a free radical scavenger. It can heal the damaged and dull looking skin as a result of environmental stress. Caffeine has various uses in skin care as well which we have mentioned under CAFFEINE. Flavonoids act as a skin protecting agents. Tannins can act as an astringent that is again helpful in mild exfoliation as well as shrinking the skin pores. Some mucilage part also plays its role in making it emollient as well as a humectant, which can help retain skin’s moisture. The extract can also act as antimicrobial and UV absorber. This can provide relief to sun irritated skin.
Caprylyl Glycol: Caprylic acid naturally, is associated with skin moisture content balance. When it is applied to the skin, it penetrates deeply and readily into the skin and attracts moisture for the skin. That makes it a valuable humectant. It also provides a smooth feel to skin, while conditioning the skin. Glycols have antimicrobial properties. It is believed to act as a preservative in formulations as well.
Carbomer: Carbomer refers to a series of polymers that are derived from acrylic acid. Carbomer is a large molecule that has the ability to absorb and retain large amounts of water. In skincare, it is used as an emulsifier to help stabilize and thicken solutions with different ingredient solubility.
Carnosine: Carnosine is a dipeptide meaning made up of two amino acids- histidine and beta-alanine. It is found in our body in muscle tissue and in the brain. Usually, the oral dose is believed to exert an anti-aging effect on the entire body, but it also exerts similar antioxidants properties when applied topically. It is a powerful antioxidant, anti-glycation as well. It combats bot ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RCS (Reactive carbonyl species). It exerts a protective effect on the skin, by preventing damage to skin cell and DNA by powerful UV rays and other oxidative damage. Anti-aging products like serums, night creams have carnosine as one of the ingredients.
Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) Extract: Its area of action is the entire body, but it is considered effective for the skin as well. It heals the burnt, scarred and wounded skin rapidly. According to researches, it improves collagen and fibronectin formation, helps rejuvenate skin from within. The constituents also promote hyaluronic acid production, which is a moisture reservoir for the skin. It normalizes the microcirculation of fat cells and adipose tissue within the skin, and it's beneath, thus helps improve the cellulite appearance on the surface of the skin. It enhances type I collagen, which is responsible for curing photoaging. Therefore it is apparent that Centella Asiatica can improve the photoaging, cellulite affected and stressed skin dramatically.
Cetyl Alcohol: Cetyl alcohol, also known as palmityl alcohol is usually derived from vegetable oil. Long chain alcohol is more hydrophobic and least hydrophilic, that’s why it forms a waterproof film wherever it is applied. This does not let moisture escape in the air from the skin or hair shaft. This property makes it an ideal choice as an emollient. It also improves dry skin condition. It has highly reactive -OH group attached to it, which on the contrast makes it water loving. So, the long chain is oil-loving but the -OH group is water-loving, makes it an ideal choice as a surfactant or foam boosting agent.
Chlorphenesin: Chlorphenesin also is known as CHP in shorter form, is chemically a substituted chlorophenol group, synthetic preservative. It is a broad spectrum, solid state, water-soluble antimicrobial substance. It is active against harmful bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. It is also considered a multivalent preservative, which carries a significance in terms of being used in any formulation since it can stabilize other chemical groups in the same formulation. It is also known as a cosmetic biocide, meaning it can cleanse the skin as well as deodorize skin by eliminating odor-causing bacteria. It stabilizes the preparation with the antimicrobial point of view plus it also has weak emulsifier properties. It can be called as a multipurpose ingredient of any formulation since when it is used in a product apart from serving the main purpose of the product, it also protects skin from other harmful bacteria, fungi or yeasts and at the same time stabilizes the main product as well.
Cholesteryl Chloride BHT:
Cholesteryl Nonanoate: A cholesteric ester (cholesterol + nonanoic acid) that has a unique liquid crystal structure (in between solid and liquid state). Mixed with other cholesteric esters, it can produce beautiful iridescent colors.
Cholesteryl Oleyl Carbonate: A cholesterol based ester molecule (cholesterol + oleyl alcohol with carbonic acid) whose unique thing is that it's neither solid nor liquid but something in between called liquid crystals. Multiple cholesteric esters are often mixed togeather to form a "cholesteric liquid crystal" structure that can reflect visible light to produce beautiful iridescent colors.
Choline Chloride: This ingredient is mainly used as a humectant, and is sometimes even administered to pre-menopausal women to keep the mucous membranes moist.
Chrysin: Is a botanical Ingredient, naturally occurring isoflavone that is extracted from plants, most often from the passiflora caerulea (blue passion flower). This flavanoid is well documented for exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic capabilities.
Citric Acid: It is one of alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), so at a certain concentration, it shows AHA properties. When it is applied on the skin at a certain percentage, it may show antiwrinkle effects by mild scrubbing and peeling action. In other words, it loosens the dead skin cells and gets it detached from the epithelial layer, by doing, so it allows newer skin cell to appear on the surface. That way, it smoothens the skin and reduces wrinkles appearance. It also moisturizes the skin by holding water molecules within the epidermis. In any formulation, it stabilizes the actives as well as preservatives/antioxidants by chemically different ways. To stabilize certain active ingredient, acidic pH is a must. That is when citric acid help maintains pH range between 2.5-6.5. Similarly, for preservatives and antioxidants work properly, minerals have to be neutralized, in this condition, it chelates those mineral ions and stabilizes the preparation.
Cocamide DIPA: Cocamide DIPA provides cleansing and foaming properties, and is said to clean without being harsh or unsafe on the skin.
Cocamidopropyl Betaine: Cocamidopropyl betaine is a synthetic detergent and surfactant that is used in personal care products, cosmetics and cleaning products. It is used to reduce static, condition the skin & hair, increase the foaming action of certain cleansing and cleaning products, and moderate the viscosity of liquids.
Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine: Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine or CAHS is a synthetic amphoteric surfactant, obtained from fatty acid of coconut oil. It is used conditions skin, it may form a thin layer over skin and hair surface and does not allow moisture to escape. Thus, it makes the skin and hair smooth and glowing. It's used in bath products, body care, hair care, and skin care products.
Copper Sulfate: It is considered as a skin conditioning agent, and copper naturally exerts all its role for making skin look better like antiaging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory. However, copper sulfate is used with many other ingredients in a formulation, so it is difficult to isolate and point anyone benefit.
Cyanocobalamin: Cyanocobalamin also known as Vitamin B12, is a very important water-soluble vitamin for the entire body for performing important metabolism related functions, but in case of cosmetics or skin care aspect, no definite benefit can be found from the valuable resources on the internet.
Cysteine: Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, it is naturally found in almost every living organisms, especially those who have keratin in any form in their structure. Cysteine is a powerful antioxidant with potential to trap ROS. However cysteine in its natural form cannot exert its effect, so it has to get converted into acetylcysteine. It also produces a whitening effect. It affects in melanin production pathway in such a manner that it decreases the skin darkening melanin synthesis. Because of the sulfide group, it is also used as a reducing agent in many cosmetic preparations.
Decyl Glucoside: Decyl glucoside was first used in soaps and body cleansers because of its great foaming power, mildness, and its ability to lather easily and thicken while retaining skin moisture even when used repeatedly; prevent skin dryness. It also improves skin tolerance of a cosmetic formulation.
Diazolidinyl Urea: It is used as a preservative in self-care products like creams, lotions, baby wipes, hand washes, bubble bath, and shampoos. It is however used in safe concentration n any product to improve shelf life or stability of a product. It can be considered as a broad-spectrum antiseptic for bacteria as well as fungi.
Dimethicone: Dimethicone or polydimethylsiloxane is a silicone-based polymer. It comes as a colorless liquid. It has many different qualities which are valuable from a product perspective. It acts as a formulation defoamer, this is an essential property because when surface tension is lowered in any product, there are chances of creation of foam upon any mechanical shocks it gets. This may make the product look weird or visually, not acceptable. Defoamer makes the product look uniform. It is used to improve skin lubricity and slip. It also helps reduce the greasiness of any product. It enhances the flow of any product. It also forms a film over the skin or hair and prevents moisture loss as well as protects the skin from any environmental exposure. It is suitable for a sunscreen which is to be applied when it has to be used under the water, it provides waterproofing. It can be considered a significant benefit when it is used with high-SPF preparations, as it reduces greasiness and gives acceptable spreadability as well.
Epigallocatechin Gallate: Epigallocatechin gallate is in a shorter form known as EGCG, is a catechin/ polyphenol, found primarily in green tea. Chemically, it is an ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid. It is primarily an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. When we talk about antioxidants, it is very important to understand why we need to use them in the first place. Any environmental stress like being exposed to certain chemicals or UV radiations for long periods, makes our skin to produce free radicals. These radicals are more than enough to start and carry out premature aging of the skin, such as fine lines or wrinkles. Now when the antioxidant is present, it does not let the damage happen. It therefore also acts as an anti-aging. EGCG also has an anti-inflammatory effect, it clams the allergic or inflammatory response on the skin. It moisturizes skin, and for any cosmetics providing or retaining moisture is very crucial.
Folic Acid: Folic acid is a member of the vitamin B complex group. Precisely Vitamin B9 found in leafy green vegetables, cereals, legumes, and citrus fruits. It is beneficial to our skin both orally as well as topically. It integrates into the DNA sequences and helps with skin repair and change in an improvised manner. It comes as a crystalline, odorless powder. Conditioning agent for solid and liquid preparation.
Fucoxanthin: Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll found as an accessory pigment in the chloroplasts of brown algae and others, like diatoms, giving them a brown or olive-green color. Like other carotenoids, it has antioxidant activities and helps reduce the appearance of redness and irritation. Fucoxanthin significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to ultraviolet B radiation in human fibroblast. Topically applied fucoxanthin may also fight the look of wrinkles.
Galactoarabinan: Galactoarabinan is a natural polysaccharide found in larches. Larches are commonly found in abundance in the northwestern region of the US in mountainous regions with high altitudes and cooler temperatures. It is a beneficial ingredient for skin care. When applied to the skin in water-based products, it forms a barrier that limits the evaporation of water from the skin into the atmosphere, thereby forming an occlusive film. This film balances the moisture of the skin according to the climate. In dry weather it retains moisture, and in wet weather it binds with excess moisture. It has many phenolic groups, so when used in SPF products it disperses the sunscreen particles evenly over the skin's surface, providing more effective skin protection. It is also used as a rheology modifier. It has exfoliating properties similar to those of AHA (alpha hydroxy acids) but positively it does not irritate the skin. When applied to the face, it can reduce the appearance of fine lines. It does this by increasing cell turnover and exfoliation of the skin.
Glucose: Glucose is the simplest form of sugar, needed for almost all bodily functions, or it can be considered as currency in any living organism. In the case of cosmetics, it is used to mask any unpleasant taste for any product or as a flavoring agent in products meant to use on the surface of lips for example. It has many -OH molecules, and these molecules have a tendency to attract water. So, when it is used in any products or applied on the skin, it attracts moisture from surroundings which is very beneficial for dry skin.
Glutamic Acid: Glutamic acid is helpful in maintaining pH value for skin. Since it has various groups in its structure, it is easier to exchange active ions on it. Moreover, that structure also helps binding water molecule within the skin, and thus moisturizes the skin. It helps skin maintain moisture balance. It gives skin an improved appearance. Since it has both acidic and alkaline groups in the same structure, so it can accept many ions in order to make the product stable. It acts as an antistatic agent. Static charge can lead to destabilization of a product and as a result emulsion can also break. But when amino acids are incorporated, it can stabilize the resultant product.
Glutamine: Glutamine is also a non-essential amino acid. When the amino group is removed from glutamine, glutamic acid is formed. Glutamine is responsible for the formation of fibroblasts, the cells that are base for skin epithelium. It increases collagen production. As we age and get exposed to the harsh environment, collagen which forms 75 % of the skin protein, starts breaking down. As a result, saggy and dull skin starts showing up. So, when glutamine is applied topically it penetrates into the skin and helps boost collagen formation thus tight and young-looking skin.
Glutathione: Glutathione is low molecular weight sulfur-containing tripeptide, naturally found in our body. It is important at the cellular level because it is involved in crucial oxidation-reduction reactions within the cell. Because of the sulfur/ thiol group it acts as an antioxidant. It fights with free radicals, reactive oxygen species to provide a beneficial effect on the skin. Skin not only gets cured of ongoing damage but also prevents future damages.
Glycerin: Glycerol, more commonly known as glycerin, is polyhydric alcohol or sugar alcohol group. It is colorless, odorless, viscous liquid. Naturally, it is found in animal and vegetable fats and oils, however, synthetic variety is very similar to natural in all aspects. Glycerin is humectant in nature, it attracts water molecules towards itself. This property is particularly useful since it does not allow the skin to dry out. It forms a film when applied and prevents moisture from leaving.
Glyceryl Stearate: Considering its structure it has many different functional groups that can ease the mixing or the blending of different ingredients. More groups more acceptable it is for formulations since it can offer different types of bonds in the product. Such a product is quite stable to any environmental changes. Here GMS also blends the oil and water well. That’s why It is used in many ice creams recipes. It is an emulsifier and anticaking agent. When mixed with water, it swells significantly, this property is particularly useful in any preparation to increase bulk. So, it is also used as a thickening agent.
Glycine: Glycine primarily functions as an anti-aging ingredient based on its ability to improve moisture retention, increase collagen production, and promote skin repair and regeneration. It can also be used as a buffering agent.
Glycol Distearate: Glycol distearate is a white to cream-colored waxy solid used to condition skin, to increase the thickness of certain cosmetic products (like creams and lotions), and to reduce the clear or transparent appearance of cosmetics, such as in make-up concealers.
Hesperidin Methyl Chalcone: Hesperidin is main ingredient found in citrus fruits like orange, lemon, grapefruit etc. It comes as yellow or saffron crystal. Hesperidin methyl chalcone has unique mechanism of action. They have a vascular protective effect, meaning they strengthen the capillaries and veins by increasing their integrity, decreasing capillary leakage, and increasing strength of vascular wall in such a way they can relax and expand whenever needed. It is particularly useful in reducing under-eye puffiness or dark circles. Puffiness or dark circles are due to liquid pooling/settling in that area. It is used in creams used to apply under-eye.
Histidine: Histidine is an alpha-amino acid, which is found in the human body. It is also synthesized in our body and plays crucial role in our body in formation of certain important proteins. When applied on skin histidine can draw moisture to the skin making it well-hydrated and forms a layer on the skin that does not let moisture leave the skin into air. Moisturized skin can be considered strong enough to combat environmental damaging factors.
Hydrolyzed Collagen: Hydrolyzed collagen (HC) is a popular ingredient considered to be an antioxidant. This low molecular weight protein has been widely utilized due to its excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. It is a safe cosmetic biomaterial with good moisturizing properties on the skin.
Hydroxyethylpiperazine Ethane: It is mainly used as a buffering agent in any formulation. It provides with neutral to basic pH (7.0-7.6 pH) in any formulation. It is mainly used in conjunction with acids, which can make the product unstable otherwise. When a buffer is added in any formulation, it helps maintain the quality of any product for a longer time. After topical application, the epidermal layer of skin gets an enzymatic treatment, which helps the dead skin cells to loosen and come off easily. Exfoliation helps get rid of dirt microbes as well as dead skin cells, making skin look eve-toned and youthful.
Inositol: Inositol, from the vitamin B family, is one of the dietary supplements. It is usually found in plant and animal tissues. It is commercially synthesized from corn. It is structurally made up of many alcohol groups, that’s the reason it can draw and retain moisture from its surroundings. By doing so it also makes the moisture available for skin cells. The dried or exhausted skin layer becomes refreshed again. It is also used as an antistatic agent. It helps eliminate any electric charge or static charge created as a result of some continuous unidirectional movement of dry material or some other similar effect. Static charge can create formulation instability. So, adding inositol it can help stabilize a product.
Isoleucine: Isoleucine is one of the eight essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesized in the human body and one has to get it from outside sources to make it available for body. Amino acids have both amine and alcohol groups attached with same carbon, which gives it unique chemical instability only for one hydrogen atom. Because of this special status, it may be used as antistatic. It has the capacity to incorporate some charge within its structure. The electrostatic charge is a major problem in case of hair as they tend to fly away because of it. Which may result in tangling and breaking of hair. When a product containing amino acid in a shampoo or conditioner is used, it can keep the hair free from static charge and hair can be managed in a better way. Also, amino acids are linked to the skin’s metabolism within the stratum corneum in one or the other way. And as we age this amino acid becomes less available for maintenance of skin or hair. So, when we apply it topically, it becomes readily available for skin and hair to use and thus it brings positive structural changes in hair and skin.
Lactic Acid: Lactic acid is an Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), derived primarily from milk or from the fermentation of carbohydrates. It is often used in the formulation for adjustment of pH. It is similar to other AHAs, a skin peeling agent. It helps the dead skin cells detach from the epithelial layer and makes a room for fresh skin cells to show up on the surface. After treatment with AHAs, skin can look lighter in shade and decrease in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It also draws moisture from surroundings to use for skin and acts as a humectant.
Lecithin: Lecithin has both water-soluble as well as fat-soluble groups in its structure. So, it can be used as surfactant. Lecithin alone has only lipid solubility but when it is modified as hydroxylated lecithin, it becomes more soluble in water. It can be used as an emulsifier in case of oil in water emulsion. When it is applied on skin, it forms a layer on the skin surface which does not let moisture to evaporate. It can condition the skin and make skin moist and soft. It improves the skin’s recovery from different kinds of stressors.
Leucine: Leucine is an essential amino acid, which cannot be synthesized in our body and we have to dependent on the diet to get it. It is also an alpha-amino acid with a simple structure. It is found in different nuts, such as peanuts, almonds, wheat germ, lentils, corn, chickpea, egg, fish, milk etc. It is believed to readily absorb on the skin and help the skin carry out metabolism quickly. It also forms a layer around the skin and the hair which is protective in nature. It preserves the skin's inherent moisture and thus conditions the skin. It is when incorporated into skin structure, it may produce anti-aging effect by positively affecting skin’s metabolism. Other amino acids, improves wound healing of the skin.
Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil: Laminanthes Alba, also known as white Meadowfoam, is a flowering plant. It is native to North America. It is mainly used as a skin conditioning agent; it has a good moisturizing capacity. Lanolin can be considered as a skin-nourishing ingredient, but the meadowfoam seed oil is 4 times as moisturizing as lanolin. It has a high-water absorption ability. Therefore, it can be beneficial for extremely dry skin. Apart from skin beneficial effects, it has formulation benefits as well such as It has higher oxidative stability -meaning it does not degrade quickly and can be used in any formulation; secondly, it gives a non-greasy feel along with good moisturization, which is a plus for any moisturizer, in fact, it is preferred over other moisturizers because of this property.; And lastly, it can be a favorable medium for any color pigments.
Lycopene: Lycopene is a carotenoid, which is found majorly from tomatoes, and other fruits such as papayas and watermelons. It is bright red in color. Lycopene is mainly a potent antioxidant. It can also be used as an antimicrobial and anti-aging agent. It mainly protects the skin against damaging oxidative actions as well as from free radicals that are present in the environment. It saves the skin by swapping itself from damaging free radicals or oxidative species. It saves and maintains the original skin structure by protecting skin proteins such as collagen and elastin from getting damaged from free radicals. As a result, the skin structure may return to normal and fine lines or wrinkles may show improvement. It also helps skin grab and retains moisture so that the skin can feel calm. Appropriate water content within the skin cells also helps maintain the proper elasticity and texture. It is also still under research to find as lycopene also lightens the skin.
Lysine: Lysine is an essential amino acid, which has to be obtained from the diet and cannot be synthesized in the body. Amino acids have both -NH2 and – COOH groups in their structure. This makes them quite stable and at the same time, they have an affinity for both the water phase and the oil phase. So, they can act as a surfactant. It also forms a film on the surface of hair or skin and protects the skin from the environment and also does not allow it to lose moisture.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate: Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate is a form of vitamin C that is considered stable and is an effective antioxidant for skin. This form of vitamin C is also known to increase skin's hydration levels as well as being effective for calming factors in skin that can lead to excess oil and signs of sensitization.
Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium Chloride is a colorless crystalline material that occurs naturally as the mineral bischofite. In cosmetics and personal care products, Magnesium Chloride is used to formulate many types of products including baby products, bath products, soaps and detergents; body and hand lotions, cleansing products, eye makeup and hair care products.
Manganese Sulfate: Magnesium Sulphate is also known as Epsom salt. It occurs naturally as a mineral epsomite. Magnesium Sulphate has a natural quality of reducing swelling and pain and redness of the skin and for the same purpose it is available in the market for years. It is also famously known as a bath salt. It is an inert or non-reactive ingredient that can be added in formulations like powder or powder cakes to increase volume and dilute active ingredient to a certain amount.
Methionine: Methionine is an essential amino acid containing Sulphur. An essential amino acid is one that cannot be synthesized in our body and hence have to obtain from food. An amino acid as the name suggests, has amino (basic) and acidic groups both in its structure. So, it can make temporary bonds with other ingredients present in the skin as well as with molecules present on the skin surface proteins. As we age, we need more amino acids to make body function regularly. When it is applied on the skin or hair, it forms a layer on the skin, which not only protects the skin but does not let moisture evaporate and thus act as a conditioner for skin and hair. It improves the tone and elasticity of the skin.
Methylparaben: Methylparaben (E-218) is one of the preservative blends called the ‘paraben’ group. Other members are ethylparaben and butylparaben. Methylparaben is naturally found in many fruits like blueberries, cucumbers, cherries etc., in the form of PHBA (Pera-hydroxy benzoic acid), which is then processed further to get methylparaben. It has very low sensitizing potential, which makes it a choice of preservative for products meant for eyes, lips or sensitive skin. It is one of the most commonly used preservatives. It does not clog pores when applied on the skin, so it is non-comedogenic. It can fight against bacteria and molds. The preservatives are of very much important when it comes to products containing milk or natural extracts, the list does not stop here, but when the product is in use there are higher chances of bacteria or mold to attack the product.
N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine: N-Acetyl Glucosamine is an amino sugar that has skin exfoliating properties similar to alpha and beta hydroxyl acids without the irritation. NAG can normalize the exfoliation of the stratum corneum, so it can be a good replacement for acid based exfoliation ingredients that might annoy sensitive or rosacea prone skin.
Niacinamide: A form of vitamin B3, it occurs in the body when it absorbs more niacin than it needs to. The vitamin can be found in various foods like beans, fish, eggs, and meat. Niacinamide is used to improve skin tone and texture. Some studies suggest that niacinamide can improve skin elasticity, reduce acne, and possibly rosacea by the reduction of inflammation. Niacinamide may even increase the effectiveness of sunscreens boosting protection against free radicals.
Opuntia Ficus Indica (Prickly Pear) Extract: A type of cactus also known as prickly pear whose stem is a bountiful source of antioxidant compounds known as polyphenols, many of which are excellent at visibly reducing signs of sensitized skin. Optunia ficus-indica stem extract is non-fragrant. Along with being a great source of antioxidants, it also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids which deliver replenishing and hydrating benefits to skin. Like many plant-derived antioxidants, this one helps neutralize the damaging effects of airborne pollutants.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3: It is a patented, synthetic chemical. It communicates with healthy cells to keep them working correctly. It is made up of amino acid chains enabling it to penetrate deep into the epidermis and even the dermis. Used in cosmetics to keep the skin healthy and youthful, it does this by improving collagen production and firming the skin. As it's able to travel to the dermis, this is where it can stimulate the production of collagen. Some studies do suggest that it has the potential to stop toxins from damaging collagen. It can do this by mimicking the natural communication of the body cells.
PEG-100 Stearate: A combination of natural oils, such as palm oil, coconut oil. The oil is then combined with stearic acid to form a water-soluble ester. Can be found in many cosmetics for its emollient, emulsifier properties. As an emollient, it can give the skin a softer feel and allow the product to glide smoothly across the skin. It strengthens the skin moisture barrier allowing it to retain moisture to prevent dry skin. Hydrated skin improves the appearance and overall health of the skin.
PEG-150 Pentaerythrytyl Tetrastearate: Is a vegetable-derived (from coconut oil) high performance thickener for all-natural shampoos, bubble baths, and liquid soaps.
Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil: Avocado oil can be considered useful in the case of cell regeneration, improving the moisture content of skin. Also, it improves tone, and the texture of the skin. It gets absorbed quickly and gives a smoother feel to the skin. It is also used as a soothing agent in psoriasis.
Phenoxyethanol: It can naturally be found in green tea and chicory. Phenoxyethanol can be artificially made, which is the case for most found in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and this allows phenoxyethanol to have fewer impurities. Phenoxyethanol can preserve a product from broad-spectrum bacteria, yeast, and mold. This ensures that the product does don’t go bad once opened and exposed to air. This substance is also aromatic and can enhance a skin product scent.
Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine is a compound that includes amino acids and lipid residue, used in cosmetics and personal care products, specifically whitening formulas, to prevent skin cells from producing melanin pigmentation.
Polyquaternium-10: Polyquaternium 10 is a water soluble, white granulated powder that is a widely used ingredient in hair care products because of its anti-static and moisturizing properties. It is also considered a film former, supplying a sheen and coating to hair strands by easily being absorbed by proteins, according to Phibro Chem, an animal health organization, and CosmeticsInfo.org. It is sometimes seen in skin care products as well.
Polysorbate 20: Polysorbate 20 is used in cosmetics and skin care products as a surfactant, emulsifier, and fragrance ingredient. It is derived from Lauric Acid and is also a chemical mixture of sorbitol ethylene oxide, according to Wikipedia. It is sometimes derived from fruits and berries as well, leading to its fragrant properties. Polysorbate 20 can serve as a dispersing agent and mix oil and water, work as a fragrance solubilizer and stabilizer, act as a lubricator, and have a soothing effect on the skin.
Polysorbate 80: Polysorbate 80 is regarded as a safe chemical in skincare and is used as an emulsifier to combine oil and water.
Potassium Chloride: In cosmetics and personal care products, it may be used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, skin care products, personal cleanliness products and hair care products. Potassium Chloride functions as a viscosity increasing agent - aqueous.
Proline: In cosmetics and personal care products, proline primarily functions as an anti-aging ingredient because of its ability to improve skin elasticity, increase collagen production, and promote skin repair and regeneration.
Propanediol: Used in many cosmetics and personal care products as an emollient. As an emollient, it softens the skin and increases the suppleness of the skin. It’s able to trap moisture into the skin by forming ah occlusive layer. This is very beneficial for dry-very dry skins as it will reduce irritation and help sooth the skin while reducing flakiness. Propanediol can also function as a humectant meaning it can attract moisture to the skin from the environment. As a Humectant, this would be great for oily skin as it won't clog pores or add to the oil levels in the skin, allowing for hydration without a greasy feeling. Humectants are good for all skin types. Another property, propanediol, has as a solvent; it helps to dissolve harder ingredients such as salicylic acid, allantoin, Ascorbic acid, and ferulic acid. It also provides a nonsticky feel to the skin.
Propylene Glycol: Along with other glycols and glycerol, propylene glycol is a humectant (hydrating) and delivery ingredient used in cosmetics.
Propylparaben: Propylparaben functions as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products. In most formulations, parabens are used at very low levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.3%. The use of preservatives is necessary to prevent microbial contamination, as well as to prevent degradation by environmental factors such as heat, light, and air.
Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil: Used in cosmetics as an emollient on the skin, lips, and hair, to give it a smooth, soft feel. It contains 55- 86% oleic acid and 7-35% linoleic acid plus vitamin E & B. Linoleic, and Oleic acid is great fatty acids that help to moisturize the skin. They are essential fatty acids that can be found in the epidermis, which helps maintain the structure and integrity of the skin. The lipids are also known as ceramides. Good lipid content in the skin helps with correct permeability and defense against external factors. However, Oleic acid is much thicker and heavy thus tendency to clog pores, hence it being recognized as comedogenic.
Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Seed Oil: This valuable vegetable oil also has antioxidant properties that improves the regeneration of the skin and is therefore considered to be an outstanding skin care product for dry, aging and stressed skin.
Pyridoxine HCl: Pyridoxine HCl is the hydrochloride salt of Vitamin B6. When applied naturally in the body, Pyridoxine assists in the balancing of sodium and potassium as well as promoting red blood cell production. It is also thought to be a preventative for dandruff, eczema, and psoriasis, according to Wikipedia. It is also thought to have anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties when applied topically to the skin, although there is very little research to verify these claims (CosmeticsCop.com). Although Vitamin B6 itself is not directly liked to skin care when applied topically, a deficiency can lead to skin problems, including contact dermatitis, irritation, eczema, and blisertering.
Pyrus Malus (Apple) Pectin: Extract when applied to the skin it offers antioxidant and anti-aging benefits. AHAs- malic acid exfoliates the skin in a mild manner, which improves dark spots, blotchiness and provides a brightening effect. Vitamins and polyphenols act as antioxidants, free radical scavengers and improve the visible aging signs by protecting the skin. Quercetin has anti-inflammatory properties. It helps the red, itchy or acne-prone skin for looking and feeling better. It also moisturizes the skin.
Retinyl Acetate: Retinyl Palmitate is a fat source of Vitamin A and is used as an anti-oxidant to feed and nourish the skin. Generally, it is less irritating to the skin than a Retinol Acid. It is normally found in the skin in its natural form and is a much more stable version of Vitamin A than most other forms.
Riboflavin: Also known as Vitamin B2, it aids cell turnover and collagen maintenance, which protects the structural integrity of your skin, reduces inflammation, and speeds wound healing. It also helps with mucus secretion in the skin, thus preventing the dryness that leads to oil production (and therefore acne) and improves zinc absorption, another important mineral for skin health.
Sea Kelp (Lactobacillus/Kelp Ferment Filtrate) Bioferment: Sea Kelp Extract in skincare is perfect for anyone with dry and flaky patches of skin, due to its high iodine content. It's mineral and antioxidant rich, and is known to help soften and hydrate dry skin. Not only that, but it also helps your skin retain moisturise, keeping it hydrated for longer.
Serine: Serine is a supplementary or non-essential amino acid denoting that while this amino acid is necessary for our body to function appropriately, it is not essential that it has to be taken from any external source. Many marketed cosmetics and skin care preparations have serine as an additive in the role of a natural moisturizing agent.
Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil: Sesame oil contains vitamin E, which can help protect skin cells from the damage caused by environmental factors, such as UV rays, pollution, and toxins. Sesame oil also contains several phenolic compounds, which give it its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Sh-Oligopeptide-1 (Epidermal Growth Factor): sH-Oligopeptide-1 has an identical chemical structure to an epidermal growth factor and has been shown to increase the rate of healing and renewal of the skin, as well as slow the thinning of aging skin, thus minimising wrinkles.
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil: Jojoba oil is very well known and a useful ingredient in the skin care industry. It is a woody evergreen shrub that belongs to deserts in South Arizona. Jojoba oil is not “oil” but a liquid wax. It is a complex mixture of naturally occurring long chained linear ester, mixed with tocopherol, free sterols, and other unsaponifiable materials. The triglyceride esters are hydrolysis or oxidation resistant. Also, their stability in a product is remarkable. The sperm whale oil was very famous for its stability, antioxidant capacity and anti-aging effects on body and skin, the jojoba oil is an almost identical twin, even better than the sperm whale oil, but phyto origin, which makes it high in demand. Jojoba oil’s fatty acids and fatty alcohols are linear in the structure just like the ones found in human sebum. So it is naturally emollient, with a good level of moisture control. It forms a breathable film on the surface of the skin, yet controls the moisture evaporation from the surface of skin or hair. According to research, it has a potent antioxidant as one of its constituents, apart from tocopherol. So it has excellent free radical scavenging properties, which can help skin recover from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. It is used in almost all body care products as well as hair care products.
Its seed powder is obtained from dried and ground seeds of jojoba fruit. It’s high in protein, oil content. It is mild astringent in nature, so it is used as peel off or rinse off formulations & masks.
Sodium Acetate: Is a multi-acid, rinse-off exfoliant peel that dramatically resurfaces skin to visibly smooth wrinkles, refine rough, bumpy texture, brighten tone & unclog pores.
Sodium Chloride: More popularly known as common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skincare products and occasionally as an abrasive in scrub products. ... Salt is commonly used to thicken the water (also known as aqueous) phase of shampoos, body washes, and non-soap facial cleansers.
Sodium Hyaluronate (Hyaluronic Acid): Sodium hyaluronate is smaller than hyaluronic acid and is able to move more freely into the deeper layers of the skin. This is an advantage since sodium hyaluronate is a powerful humectant that attracts and holds on to water, making it the ultimate skin moisturizer. This helps to hydrate skin and keep it moist.
Sodium Lauroyl Lactylate: n cosmetics and personal care products, sodium lauroyl lactylate functions as a surfactant, emulsifier, and moisturizer.
Sodium Metasilicate: Sodium Metasilicate and Potassium Silicate are an inorganic salts. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in skin care, hair coloring, shaving, bath, eyemakeup and oral hygiene products. Sodium Silicate is used to control the pH of the finished product.
Sodium PCA: Sodium Metasilicate and Potassium Silicate are an inorganic salts. In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in skin care, hair coloring, shaving, bath, eyemakeup and oral hygiene products. Sodium Silicate is used to control the pH of the finished product. As a humectant, sodium PCA helps keep the skin hydrated and may also help other topical skin care ingredients to perform better.
Sodium Phosphate: Sodium Phosphate, Disodium Phosphate and Trisodium Phosphate occur as a white crystalline solids. These ingredients are also called monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate and tribasic sodium phosphate. In cosmetics and personal care products, the Sodium Phosphate ingredients are used in the formulation of bath products, colognes, dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair conditioners, hair dyes and colors, permanent waves, shampoos, makeup and skin care products.
Sodium Pyruvate: When combined with regenerating agents such as organic silica or asian centella, Sodium Pyruvate Revitalizing Solution can be used to treat a variety of complaints including skin ageing and hyperpigmentation. It has also been shown to accelerate lipolysis, an essential property of many cellulite cocktails.
Sorbic Acid: In cosmetics and personal care products, Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate are used primarily in the formulation of facial and eye makeup and skin care and hair products. Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate have a broad spectrum of fungistatic activity but are less active against bacteria.
Sorbitol: Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol found in fruits and plants. Sorbitol, like glycerin, is an excellent humectant, thickening agent, slip agent and texturizing agent for skincare products. It is most widely used in cosmetics and skincare products as a humectant where it can prevent moisture loss from the skin.
Spermidine: Spermidine is a polyamine compound found in ribosomes and living tissues, and having various metabolic functions within organisms. It was originally isolated from semen. Polyamines such as spermine, an epidermal antioxidant, may also be protective against UV-irradiation-induced oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that it acts as a metal chelator. Also an important epidermal antioxidant.
Squalane (Olive Extract) Oil: Squalene and squalane are used in skincare products as a highly-effective emollient and natural antioxidant. Over time, using squalane in skincare can reduce wrinkles, eliminate scars, reverse UV damage, lighten freckles and erase skin pigmentation, all while fighting free radicals.
Stearyl Alcohol: Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol help to form emulsions and prevent an emulsion from separating into its oil and liquid components. These ingredients also reduce the tendency of finished products to generate foam when shaken. When used in the formulation of skin care products, Stearyl Alcohol, Oleyl Alcohol and Octyldodecanol act as a lubricants on the skin surface, which gives the skin a soft, smooth appearance.
Sulfonic Acid: In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients function as sunscreen agents and as ultraviolet light absorbers. Phenylbenzimidazole Sulfonic Acid is water-soluble and is often used in sunscreen lotions or moisturizers so they will feel lighter on the skin and result in a non-greasy finish. Thiamine HCl
Thioctic Acid: Thioctic Acid is a powerful anti-oxidant, enhancer of the antioxidant effects of glutathione and vitamins C and E, co-factor to energy production – keeping cells youthful, delays formation of fine lines and wrinkle, has anti-inflammatory benefits, promotes collagen synthesis.
Threonine: Threonine is an amino acid used in cosmetics and personal care products because of its ability to promote growth though protein balance maintenance. ... According to the Cosmetics Database, it is a fragrance ingredient, skin and hair conditioning agent, and anti-static agent.
Tocopherol (Vitamin E): Its antioxidant properties allow it to interact with reactive oxidation species (ROSS) which are known for contributing to cell death and give rise to loss of skin elasticity, loss of cologne making the skin look dull and flat plus creating fine lines which are prominent around the eyes and mouth area where the skin is thinner. In the cell membranes tocopherol can prevent the propagation of free radical reactions this in turn reduces the loss of lipid membran cells and maintanes an intact structure. In terms of UV protection, Vitamin E can absorb UVB rays giving some protection. With the addition of Vitamin C, they both can provide better defense against the effects of UV rays and help preventand reduce pre/mature aging from the free radicals caused by UV damage.
Tocotrienols: In addition to its ability to penetrate the skin's deepest layers and neutralize the damaging effects of UV-induced free radicals, tocotrienol acts on key proteins within skin cells to induce cell death to help prevent diseases.
Tryptophan: An amino acid, acting as a hair and conditioning agent.
Tyrosine: It is used in cosmetics and skin care products because of its ability to produce melanin, the chemical that produces color in the skin, according to The University of Maryland Medical Center. Tyrosine is also thought to stimulate fibroblasts to make more collagen when it is paired with ascorbic acid
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract: The grape seed oil gets absorbed quickly into the skin, and makes it soft, conditioned and smooth. It can also provide a mild toning effect. It is used in creams and lotions, bath and massage oil, hair care products, skin toners, make-up, and anti-aging products. The grape seed extract is also nourishing and it has counter-irritant property, it can help get rid of minor aches and pains, from the skin point of view it also acts as an antioxidant. It not only a free radical scavenger but also protects from oxidative damage which occurs because of pollution. It can prevent premature aging of skin and help diminish fine lines and wrinkles gradually. All so used as an antibacterial, it prevents spoilage of a product due to micro-organisms or odor and pimple formation, in that case the extract can be used to correct the underlying cause and to provide better results. It is also suitable for irritated and sensitive skin. The extract is mainly used in anti-aging and anti-irritant lotions, creams, gels and as a skin toners.
Xanthan Gum: A by-product of Xanthomas campestris excretion. Contains natural polysaccharides; glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid. It is dried into a white power which is gluten-free, that can be dissolved in cold and warm water. Xanthan gum’s main property is as a gelling agent which allows it to bind multiple ingredients together in a formulation. Can also be used in formulations for its emulsifying and rheology qualities to increase the viscosity, stability or increase the foaming capabilities of a product.
Xanthophyll: Lutein is a xanthophyll or a carotenoid, which is found naturally in many plants and vegetables. It is found in abundance in darker vegetables and fruits for example carrots, kale and spinach. It is isolated or synthesized for industrial use. It comes as red-orange crystalline solid. It can be considered a potent antioxidant. It can also protect the skin against harmful free radicles present in the environment. Also, it uses itself as a substitute for skin protein in case of free radicle interaction or oxidative alteration of topically present skin protein. So, skin structure may remain unaltered and the skin may not lose its natural elasticity and firmness. It also helps retain the skin’s natural moisture and provide it with relief with the dry or itchy feeling. It can act synergistically with other carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and can benefit the skin multifold when together. It is used in cosmetic and personal care products.
Zinc Sulfate: Zinc Sulfate is a white crystalline powder that dissolves well in water. It has astringent and anti-microbial properties. In water-in-oil emulsions, which are designed as care products for the skin, the salt acts as a stabilizing ingredient.
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